Inequalities in housing difficulties have decreased because everyone is now in a worse situation
Throughout the pandemic, we have investigated the disproportionate impacts of the pandemic on American families. In June, we reported that black and Hispanic Americans face higher rates of housing difficulties than white Americans, and we stressed the importance of identifying a long-term solution rather than a “long-term solution”. Pad”. In November, we found that housing inequalities had worsened as the COVID-19 pandemic continued. Today, almost a year after the start of the pandemic, with the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, we explore how housing inequalities have changed during the pandemic. Over the past few months, we see that disproportionate experiences of housing hardship have eased, but only because everyone has deteriorated. We also observe that black families have become “long haul” when it comes to their experience of housing difficulties.
We first explore how experiences of housing difficulties changed during the pandemic with regards to eviction / foreclosure (Figure 1), late payment of rent / mortgage (Figure 2) and the deadline for paying utility bills (figure 3). As previously reported, housing inequalities worsened in the first six months after the pandemic. As of June 2020, 9% of blacks and 7% of Hispanics had experienced a deportation / seizure, which was significantly higher than whites (5%), even after taking demographic and socio-economic attributes into account. Likewise, over the same time period, minority respondents were much more likely to experience late payments of rent / mortgage and utilities compared to white respondents – rent / mortgage: 15 percent (black), 13 percent one hundred (Hispanic) and 9 percent (white); Utility: 21 percent (black), 20 percent (Hispanic), and 14 percent (white).
Housing inequalities have since declined after peaking in August. This trend is not, however, due to the fact that the housing situations of minority groups have become much more stable. Instead, white respondents are increasingly experiencing housing instability. For example, between August and November, the eviction / foreclosure risks for black and Hispanic respondents decreased by less than 10 percent (from an eviction rate of 8.8 percent to 7.9 percent for black respondents and 7.4 percent to 7.5 percent for Hispanic respondents). During the same period, however, the risk of eviction / foreclosure of white respondents increased by 23% (from an eviction rate of 5.3% to 6.6%). Likewise, in November, we see a reduction in inequality differentials in the deferred payment of rent / mortgage and utility bills mainly due to the delayed peak of white respondents. The outlook becomes positive, however, as we observe that levels of housing instability and inequality have declined in March and April 2021 compared to the previous survey in November 2020.
In addition to housing instability, we also explore the incidence of housing hardship and how households experienced protracted hardship differences by race and ethnicity. In the same way that the physical symptoms of COVID-19 can stick with the body and lead some people to become “long-haul” COVID-19, housing difficulties have remained with some households in a wave of investigation to the other. We specifically examined families who experienced housing difficulties (i.e. eviction / foreclosure, late payment of rent / mortgage, and late payment of utility bills) during the previous survey (three months before this survey) and estimated how many of them still suffered from it. trials three months later. For robust estimates, we controlled for demographic and socio-economic attributes.
Figure 4 reports how the impact of living as a struggling long-haul housing has changed during the pandemic. Of all respondents, 61 percent have experienced housing difficulties over long distances at some point during the pandemic. This means that on two consecutive survey dates (every three months apart), they said they had experienced housing difficulties in the previous three months. In November, the proportion of long-haul trips peaked, with more than two-thirds of respondents reporting having experienced housing difficulties during at least two survey periods. Figure 5 deconstructs the proportion of long-haul travelers facing housing difficulties by race / ethnic group. Throughout the pandemic, black respondents (69 percent) endured long-distance housing difficulties more often than white and Hispanic respondents (58 percent and 62 percent respectively). This gap was particularly pronounced at the start of the pandemic. In August, black respondents were 1.5 times more likely than white respondents to continue to experience housing difficulties for two consecutive survey periods, with this difference being statistically significant at p
Through a year of surveys, we have learned that minority groups, especially black families, have been very vulnerable to the shocks of the pandemic. However, we also observe that the suffering of minority families quickly spread to everyone, including white households. Likewise, as a greater proportion of black households face long-haul housing challenges, more Hispanic and white households have joined this group to feel the long-term effects of COVID-19 on their homes. financial and residential stability.
Persistent housing challenges demonstrate the continued need for relief for tenants and homeowners with mortgages. The decrease in inequalities between households of different races, coupled with the slow ramp towards recovery, shows that widespread financial relief is still needed across the country. Payments linked to economic impact would be of little use, especially for long haul who have housing difficulties and who are already a few months behind in paying housing / utility bills. On the contrary, as our previous blog claimed, more proactive and sustainable remedies, such as a universal housing voucher, are needed.
Some people may argue that these proactive remedies are too expensive. For example, the Congressional Budget Office estimated in 2015 that it would cost an additional $ 29 billion if the housing voucher were to cover those earning 30% of the area’s median income (AMI) or less. Yet infection and expulsion are linked. Even though the expense seems huge, the cost of infections far exceeds the cost of housing. Throughout the pandemic, social distancing has been essential in minimizing the impacts of COVID-19 by reducing the frequency and duration of contact between individuals. Obviously, the most powerful and effective way to maintain social distance is to keep people at home.